Palestrantes Confirmados

 

OPENING LECTURES

 

597

 Willibaldo Schmidell Netto

 wschmidell@hotmail.com

Bioprocesses study in Brazil

Federal University of Santa Catarina

This presentation intends to outline the main points that should be addressed during the development of a given bioprocess, indicating their inter-connection - which must be taken into account in order to attain satisfatory results, after a succesful research. Following, the main bioprocess research lines in Brazil are discussed. A tendency towards energy production is detected, witha lower intensity of research in the direction of molecules with higher added value, such as those required for the area human health. The reasons for this situation are discussed.
 

 

603

Flavio Faria de Moraes

 flaviofmoraes@uol.com.br

SHEB´s history: Studying the use of biomass in Brazil

State University of Maringá

Implemented in 1975, the Brazilian National Alcohol Program, Pro-Alcohol, was responsible for the impressive increase in ethanol production in Brazil, from 500 million L, at the beginning of the program, to 12 billion L of ethanol per year, in the 1980s. This enormous production comes exclusively from the fermentation of sugarcane juice, therefore generating huge amounts of bagasse. Thus, the search for improvements in the utilization of sugarcane juice for the production of ethanol, and the use of bagasse for producting additional ethanol, was at that time a very attractive subject for research. Also other biomasses applications were gaining momentum. In this context it was born, in 1983, the Symposium of Enzymatic Hidrolysis of Biomass - SHEB. A little of that 30 years history will be highlighted here - "With lovers and friends I still can recall".

 

PLENARY LECTURES


348

Johan M. Thevelein

 [email protected]

Polygenic analysis of complex traits for development of superior industrial yeast strains

Johan M. Thevelein, María R. Foulquié-Moreno, Françoise Dumortier, Jean-Paul Meijnen, Stijn De Graeve, Thiago Pais, Georg Hubmann, Yudi Yang, Mekonnen Demeke, Annelies Goovaerts, YingYing Li

University of Leuven and Flanders Institute of Biotechnology (VIB)

Most traits of industrial importance in yeast and other industrial microorganisms are polygenic traits, i.e. traits determined by multiple genes acting together. Most quantitative traits for instance are polygenic. Genetic analysis of polygenic traits has been an important challenge for many years. Screening of S. cerevisiae strain collections has revealed a wide diversity for these complex traits, with natural strains often being superior for a specific desirable trait compared to industrial yeast strains. We have developed pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to map all QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) determining a complex trait in a yeast strain that is superior for a trait of interest compared to an industrial target yeast strain. Multiple rounds of random inbreeding with the first-generation segregants is used to downscale the size of the QTLs, reducing the number of candidate causative genes in the centre of the QTL. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis and allele exchange are used to identify and confirm the causative genes in the QTLs. We have applied this technology platform to several yeast traits of prime importance in first- and second-generation industrial bioethanol production. The genetic basis of ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation and maximal ethanol accumulation capacity was determined and specific mutant genes identified for both properties. Higher ethanol tolerance has a major effect on yield and productivity in bioethanol production, because it improves the fermentation rate, the attenuation of the sugar, the maximal final ethanol titer, reduces the liquid volumes in the plant and lowers sensitivity to other stress factors. Mutant genes causing reduced glycerol production and enhanced ethanol production, as well as mutant genes underlying higher thermotolerance and acetic acid tolerance and faster xylose fermentation in an industrial strain for cellulosic bioethanol production, have also been identified. The superior alleles found in the different strains are used to improve the performance of industrial yeast strains for first and second-generation bioethanol production.

 

 354John M. Woodley

[email protected]

Process intensification for bioprocesses

Technical University of Denmark

Today, there is huge interest in bioprocesses, especially for industrial chemical production. Such processes, based on fermentation or biocatalysis to synthesize new or alternative molecules provide a new and exciting platform for the next generation of chemical processes. For economic implementation such processes need to produce products in the concentration range from 60 to 400 g/L, dependent on the value of the product being produced. This represents an enormous challenge for process implementation because most bioprocesses operate at much lower concentrations of substrate and product. Likewise for cost-effective fermentation such processes need to have a high enough yield both on substrate and for cost-effective biocatalysis, a high enough yield on cells or enzyme catalyst. In all cases process technology integrated with biocatalyst engineering can provide solutions via process intensification. In this presentation I will explain the principles of process intensification in relation to bioprocesses. I will outline some of the technologies available, challenges to be overcome and opportunities for the future.

 

357Jonathan S. Dordick

[email protected]

Biocatalytic nanocomposites: Marrying biomolecular science and advanced materials to provide form, function, and protection from disease

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Nature is unparalleled in its structural and functional diversity. Living organisms make fantastic materials under myriad conditions with properties we cannot emulate today using conventional approaches. In many cases, nature has provided us with a blueprint to design and assemble both natural and synthetic building blocks to create a new generation of functional, organized, and responsive materials. We have taken cues from nature to design materials with unique structural and functional properties, along with new process technologies with the ability to produce a wide range of biomimetic structures. Specifically, we have focused on the generation of nanostructures that are functionalized with and in some cases constructed from biological molecules, complete with tailored selectivities and biocatalytic activities. For example, these nanostructures have been exploited in the generation of biocatalytically functional polymeric films, coatings, and paints that kill bacteria, prevent biofilm formation, and reduce fouling by bioorganic molecules. In this talk I will highlight our recent efforts to exploit the interface of biology with materials science, enhancing enzyme function along the way. Both fundamental advances and applications will be discussed, the latter focused on enzyme-nanomaterial composites with a wide range of activities that endow surfaces with decontaminating properties. In particular, surfaces have been generated with tailored activity against hospital-acquired infections (e.g., MRSA) and bacillus spores. Such activity provides a safe and potentially broadly applicable route to eliminating toxic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms from common surfaces.

 

360Michael R. Ladisch

[email protected]

Effects of cell wall structure and inhibitors on enzyme hydrolysis of lignocellulose

Michael R. Ladisch and Eduardo Ximenes

Purdue University

Lignin content and distribution, and cell wall thickness influence the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in lignocellulosic feedstocks.  Cell wall structure and the type of tissue also has a measurable effect on enzyme activity.  In cornstalks, which have some similarity to sugar cane stalks, sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis of corn leaves, stalk pith and stalk fiber (rind) correlate with changes in plant cell wall structure both before and after liquid hot water pretreatment.    The extent of enzyme hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover follows the sequence pith > leaves >  fiber  with 90% conversion of cellulose to glucose occurring in 24 hours in the best cases.  While the compositions of these three fractions are similar, the conversions are not.  This indicates that microscopic structure causes resistance to hydrolysis.  However, recalcitrance due to structural features is only one parameter that impacts enzyme activity.  The release of inhibitors from the lignocelluloses during pretreatment also exerts a major effect on enzyme activity.  We found that phenols not only inhibit cellulases but can also deactivate some of the enzymes used in the conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugars.  The deactivation effect was determined by pre-incubating phenols with cellulases or β-glucosidases for specified periods of time, prior to the respective enzyme assays.  Tannic, gallic, hydroxy-cinnamic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, together with vanillin cause 20 to 80% deactivation of cellulases and/or β-glucosidases in 24 hours.  The strength of the inhibition or deactivation effect depends on the type of enzyme, the microorganism from which the enzyme is derived, and the type of phenolic compounds present.  A. niger β-glucosidase is the most resistant to inhibition and deactivation, requiring about 5 and 10 fold higher concentrations, respectively, for the same levels of inhibition or deactivation as observed for enzymes from T. reesei.  Of the phenol molecules tested, tannic acid is the single, most damaging aromatic compound that causes both deactivation and reversible loss (inhibition) of all of enzyme activities tested.  This paper will present a mechanistic explanation of the combined effects of cell wall structure and the release of phenolic compounds on the inhibition of enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose.

 

LECTURES

 

366Alberdan S. Santos 

 [email protected]

Biotechnological production of enzymes and secondary metabolites: Description of biotransformation processes with pharmacological interest

Federal University of Pará

The use of enzymes to modify organic molecules structures to achieve new targets with pharmacological interest has been performed by our research groups in the last 5 years. In the same way, secondary metabolites with biological activities produced by fungi and plant have been intensively investigated. In this work, strategies used to select filamentous fungi and plant species that produce peroxidase will be presented, as well as the biotechnological processes for obtaining the concentrated in preparative scale, aiming the production of enzymes’ concentrated for use as biocatalysts. In these studies, peroxidases' crude extracts from plant Bactris gasipaes (BG-peroxidase) and from filamentous fungus Pestalotiopsis sp (FF-peroxidase) were produced. Also, the biotechnological production of a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus flavus will be described. This metabolite known as 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4H-pyron-4-one, (HMP), presented biological activity as inducer of macrophage activation. The concentrated BG-peroxidase was used in the biotransformation of HMP into HMPD, and the FF-peroxidase has been used in biotransformation of phenylpropenes to produce new target molecules with pharmacological interest. 


369Andres Illanes

[email protected]

Evolution in the industrial applications of immobilized enzymes in the last 40 years

Valparaiso Catholic University

Enzyme immobilization has been one of the most significant breakthroughs in enzyme technology. Early recognized at the end of the 1960s as a powerful technology for process development, the industrial production of L-amino acids for human and animal nutrition was already a reality at the end of that decade in Japan. The paradigmatic case of the high-tonnage production of high-fructose syrups with immobilized glucose (xylose) isomerase followed in the early 1970s generating great expectations about the industrial impact of immobilized enzymes. Certain disappointment followed, since by the end of the 1980s, despite the impressive amount of research in the subject, only the production of β-lactam nuclei with immobilized penicillin acylase and the production of acrylamide with immobilized cells containing nitrile hydratase activity have reached large scale industrial production. Since then, with the increasing impact of biocatalysis in organic synthesis, immobilized enzymes have regained relevance by potentiating the valuable properties of enzyme specificity with increased stability under the usually harsh conditions required by such reactions. Nowadays, the tailor design of immobilized catalysts by different strategies of catalyst engineering is opening vast fields of enzyme applications, especially in high added value processes.

 

 372Antonio Bonomi

[email protected]

Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery – a novel framework to assess technical and sustainability impacts of different alternatives for the sugarcane chain

Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory – CTBE

A comprehensive strategy to evaluate the sustainability of different biofuels production routes using sugarcane as raw material is under development at the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) integrating different computer platforms such as Aspen Plus, SimaPro and electronic spreadsheets. This tool, so called the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery (VSB), allows the comparison of technical, economic, social and environmental impacts of different technologies regarding the production of bioethanol, sugar, bioelectricity and other products in a Biorefinery context. Since the agricultural phase is also being modeled and integrated with the industrial phase, impacts of the agricultural technologies on the industrial phase (and vice-versa) are evaluated in the VSB.

 

375Benevides Pessela 

 [email protected]

Essential aspects of enzyme immobilization for food processing 

CIAL-CSIC-Madrid 

In recent years, biotechnology has undergone major advances and parallel applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzyme-catalyzed processes in industry are increasingly numerous, since they have a number of advantages over conventional non-biological catalysts: display a high catalytic activity, exhibit high substrate specificity, are very active at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A major advantage of using immobilized enzymes is found in the food industry, where asepsis is a necessary condition and separation of products and substrates has a key role in the process, economically and technologically. One application of enzymatic catalysis in food processing is the production of wheat protein hydrolysates using pepsin and co-immobilized protease. Another example is the processing of lactose that is present in milk (4.3-44.5%) and in some dairy products, which is harmful for those who lack intestinal lactase. Thus, this disaccharide has been eliminated from dairy products, using beta-galactosidase from thermophilic organisms covalently immobilized, which allowed simultaneous hydrolysis of this sugar (lactose) during the process of milk treatment at high temperatures (UHT), yielding a microbiologically adequate intake milk for lactose-intolerant people. 

 

  381Denise M. G. Freire

[email protected]

Production and utilization of biosurfactants: Molecular strategies and scale-up

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Currently, the main application of biosurfactants is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation, due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration. The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for several industrial applications, such as food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combination with enzymes for wastewater treatment. Although biosurfactants are promising for several industrial applications, their industrial scale production is currently difficult due to high raw-material costs, high processing costs and low manufacturing output. Due to such factors, current research challenges are to increase yield and reduce costs of raw materials. Rhamnolipids reportedly have a good chance of being adopted by industry as a new class of renewable resource-based surfactants. In this context, the Chemistry Institute/UFRJ (LaBiM) and COPPE/UFRJ (PAM-PEQ) have developed projects aiming at increasing rhamnolipids production by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain isolated from oil wells, in collaboration with Petrobras. Different strategies were developed in order to increase rhamnolipid production at the expense of production of other virulence factors. Comparative proteomics studies of the strain in different physiological conditions were carried on. One of the main limitations for biosurfactant production in bioreactors is the intense foaming. A non-dispersive oxygenation device controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) permitted a better control over dissolved oxygen, thus allowing process scale-up. The rhamnolipid production by P. aeruginosa was partially dependent of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium. Moreover, the relationship between rhamnolipid production and oxidative stress has been recently studied and proteins related to oxidative stress pathways and rhamnolipid production by P. aeruginosa were identified. This biomolecule showed excellent results when applied in the remediation and washing of contaminated soils with oil spill and has anti-microbial and anti-adhesive properties against several pathogens on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces.

 

384Enrique Galindo

[email protected]

Understanding multiphase dispersions occurring in fermentation processes

National Autonomous University of Mexico

Industrial fermentation processes involve the mixing of multiple phases (solid, liquid, gaseous), where the interfacial area determines the performance of the process. Hence dispersion is a critical issue as it determines mass transfer efficiency and homogeneity. Image analysis techniques are valuable tools that provide insights of interesting hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in multiphase systems. Our research group selected the g-Decalactone (peach-like aroma) production by Trichoderma harzianum as a model for the microscopic analysis of complex multiphase dispersions. We have developed advanced image-analysis techniques, including high-speed video in order to record the dispersion occurring in a mixing tank and in an actual microbial culture. These techniques have allowed us not only measuring the sizes of the bubbles and drops generated in the model process, but also to record and measure the speed and trajectories of the moving objects as well as the observation of the phase interactions resulting in complex structures (e.g. inclusion of air bubbles and aqueous droplets inside oil drops), phenomena not evidenced with studies focused only on the hydrodynamics or not using the high speed visualization techniques. New approaches have been developed to enlighten the mechanisms involved in the inclusion of air bubbles and aqueous droplets inside oil drops and to visualize and characterize the events occurring in multiphase dispersions in order to obtain a deeper and mechanistic understanding of the complex phenomena determining mass transfer.

 

387Everson A. Miranda 

 [email protected]

Protein recovery and purification by precipitation/crystallization: Phase diagrams as tools for achieving better processes

University of Campinas 

Crystallization and precipitation are important unit operations in the concentration (early stages) and purification and formulation (final stages) of protein in the downstream processing of a fermentation product. Both involve the formation of a solid protein phase from an aqueous solution. The structure of the solid phase, which can be amorphous or crystalline, depends on many factors. Salt induced precipitation (salting-out) is a method commonly used to precipitate/crystallize proteins. By adding a salt, an aqueous protein solution is forced to undergo a phase separation into a protein-lean liquid phase and a protein-rich phase. Since a complete phase separation cannot be achieved, the protein-rich phase is actually a mixture of the solid phase (herein called true precipitate) and the protein-lean liquid phase. Generally speaking, phase diagrams are maps that represent a system as a function of conditions. In case of a protein system, these conditions are protein concentration, temperature, pH, ionic strength, buffer concentration and concentration of any other additive in the system.  Therefore, knowing a phase diagram allows one to set conditions in a protein system to obtain a specific composition of the “solid” phase and a “solid” phase with a defined structure (amorphous or crystalline structure). Although phase diagrams are powerful tools, published work on the experimental determination of phase equilibrium diagrams for protein precipitation systems is scarce. This presentation will show two contributions towards filling in this gap. First, complete phase diagrams for lysozyme and four different salts (ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium carbamate) and for bovine serum albumin and ammonium sulfate will be presented. A technique for determining the true precipitation compositions (Popova et al., 2008) was applied for all systems, showing that they are rarely the same. Second, work on determination of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B22) for lysozyme and insulin in a volatile salt (ammonium carbamate) system and its relation to the structure of the solid phase formed will be discussed. Our data showed that the B22 range (from -0.0002 to -0.0008 mL.mol/g2) usually related to crystallization processes (George and Wilson, 1994) is not applicable to the lysozyme system studied.

 

390

522Fernando A. G. Torres* and Nádia S. Parachin

*[email protected]

Genetic modifications in yeasts for the development of new biotechnological processes

University of Brasília

Yeasts easts represent one of the most important biological systems in industrial biotechnology: they share many genetic and biochemical features with higher eukaryotes, genetic modifications are readily accomplished and are suitable for large-scale industrial fermentation. For platform applications two yeast species are highly considered: Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The former is a methylotrophic yeast considered an important ‘protein factory’ for the production of therapeutical proteins and industrial enzymes. Fermentation strategies for both methanol-inducible and constitutive expression are well developed in Pichia. With the completion of its genome new molecular tools and expression strategies have emerged thus expanding the use of this system in other fields such as synthetic biology. Used for millennia to produce beverages and food, S. cerevisiae also became a workhorse in the production of biofuels, most notably bioethanol. Its powerful molecular tools allow precise and controlled genetic modifications which provide the framework for the introduction of complex heterologous metabolic pathways. As an example, new strains have been developed for the fermentation of pentoses, an important bottleneck in lignocellulosic ethanol production. Expression strategies for both yeasts will be presented with emphasis on their impacts in the modern biotechnology industry.

.

  393Isabel Rocha

[email protected]

Systems biology for the development of microbial cell factories

University of Minho

Industrial Biotechnology is increasingly replacing chemical processes in numerous industrial sectors since it allows the use of renewable raw-materials and provides a more sustainable manufacturing base. The field of Metabolic Engineering (ME) has thus gained a major importance since it allows the design of improved microorganisms for industrial applications. However, in Metabolic Engineering problems, it is often difficult to predict the effects of genetic modifications on the resulting microbial phenotype, owing to the complexity of metabolic networks. Consequently, the task of identifying the modifications that will lead to an improved microbial phenotype is a quite complex one, requiring robust mathematical and computational tools. In this presentation I will focus in some of our efforts in these fields, namely in the generation of better mathematical models of microbial metabolism and the development of reliable and effective computational and mathematical methods for the design of rational metabolic engineering strategies Furthermore, I will introduce the open-source software tool developed in house, called OptFlux (www.OptFlux.org), that allows researchers both from industry and academia to simulate, in a user-friendly way, the behavior of industrially important microorganisms under a variety of conditions and also indicates which genetic modifications may lead to enhanced strains for a particular application. 

  

396Jaime Finguerut 

 [email protected]

Ethanol production in Brazil: Evolution and perspectives

CTC-Piracicaba

In this presentation it will be shown that ethanol production in high scale industrial plants evolved in parallel with the sugarcane feedstock evolution. The sugarcane productivity doubled, at the same time as the productivity of the fermentation process also doubled, as well as the productivity of the sugarcane extraction process. The maturity of the global process, including the feedstock and the industrial processing, allows the appearance of breakthroughs, totally new technologies that will evolve even faster than the first generation. One of these new technologies is the cellulosic ethanol process that will make possible to use the full biomass of sugarcane.

 

399Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

[email protected]

Algae Biorefinery

Federal University of Rio Grande

Microalgae comprise a heterogeneous group that includes all photosynthetic micro-organisms, eukaryotic or prokaryotic, that can often grow in a heterotrophic pathway. Usually they are unicellular, gram-negative, colored, live mostly in aquatic environments and have been widely used as food and feed. Microalgal biotechnology has significantly developed and diversified; nowadays, they are often used as pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fertilizer, and recently, they have been proposed as source of renewable energy. Microalgae grow through CO2 consuming, contributing to global warming reduction, and may use waste like nutrients for growth and producing high value-added bioproducts. The sunlight uses as primary energy source, plenty of land and Brazil incidences of sun, combined with high yields with low environment impact, make microalgae the most appropriate basis for an innovative model for Brazilian biorefinery.


402Luciana R. B. Gonçalves

 [email protected]

Enzyme biocatalysis and Green Chemistry

Federal University of Ceará

The term “Green Chemistry” is used to describe some well-defined concepts in chemical manufacturing. Biological methods for industrial manufacturing are an excellent starting point to create a green process, since biocaylysts naturally follows the Principles of Green Chemistry: Prevent waste, Design safer chemicals and products, Design less hazardous chemical syntheses, Use renewable feedstock, Avoid chemical derivatives, Use safer solvents and reaction conditions, Increase energy efficiency, Minimize the potential for accidents, etc. (Tao and Kaslauskas, 2011). The use of enzyme in biocatalysis presents several advantages, such as high specificity, high activity under moderate conditions, high turnover number. Furthermore, they are highly biodegradable and are considered natural products. Nevertheless, they also have some drawbacks, since enzyme have high molecular complexity, high production costs and intrinsic fragility. Enzyme improvement via immobilization is a useful technique of enzyme engineering, which allows not only the re-use of enzymes but also the enhancement of enzyme properties. Some reasons to engineer enzymes include: better accommodate unnatural substrates, increase their stability under the reaction conditions and create new reactions or new biochemical pathways. Among enzymes, lipases appears as important tools in the application of the principles of Green Chemistry, offering a convenient way to prepare derivatives of natural compounds with a great potential in food and pharmaceutical industries. With this in mind, some immobilization strategies, supports (at different scales) and ways of conducting processes will be discussed. 

 

405Luiz P. Ramos

[email protected] ufpr.br

Pretreatment of cane bagasse using Bmim[OAc] and ethanol under supercritical CO2

Silveira, M. H. L; Corazza, M. L.; Ramos, L. P.

Federal University of Paraná

Green solvents such as supercritical fluids (SCF) and ionic liquids (ILs) have been already investigated as pretreatment methods for (ligno)cellulosic materials. However, ILs are very expensive chemicals that are usually used in high amounts while most SCF processes have not been able to deliver highly accessible substrates for hydrolysis. On the other hand, one possible way to maximize the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides for fuels and chemicals is delignification under mild pretreatment conditions, generating highly accessible substrates in which both cellulose and hemicelluloses are adequately preserved. In this work, the use of green solvents for the partial delignification of sugarcane bagasse is demonstrated. The experiments were carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) combined with1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (Bmim[OAc]) and ethanol with IL-to-bagasse mass ratios of0.5:1to 1:1. The experiments were performed with 40g of CO2 and 15.8g of ethanol for 2h at 145 and 180°C with 222.5 and 250 Bar, respectively. Appropriate controls were also carried out to reveal the actual effects of the SC-CO2/IL pretreatment. The chemical composition of the resulting substrates was characterized as well as their susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. The observed levels of delignification ranged from 25.6 to 41.0 wt% while the enzymatic hydrolysis, using 5 wt% total solids and 10mg/g of Cellic CTec2, resulted in saccharification yields of 67.7 and 70.7wt% after 12h. Hence, the method produced excellent substrates for hydrolysis with a minimal requirement of ILs, which are amenable to recovery and reuse from the SC-CO2/IL ethanol extract.

 

408Marcelo Zaiat

[email protected]

Evolution of environmental biotechnology over the last 30 years

University of São Paulo

The environmental biotechnology evolution over the last 30 years is the subject of this lecture. An overview of the challenges and advances will be presented from an engineering stand point, taking into account the advances in the knowledge on dynamics of the environment and the changes in the relationship between mankind and nature. The use of microorganisms to improve environmental quality will be focused with basis on the main technologies developed to prevent and mitigate environmental impacts. The role of biotechnology on environmental quality in the last three decades and the perspectives for the future will be put in the center of the discussion.

  

411Maria de Lourdes T. M. Polizeli

 [email protected]

Hemicellulolytic enzymes production using autohydrolysis liquor obtained from agro-industrial residues

University of São Paulo 

Lignocellulosic material is not readily available to enzymatic hydrolysis mainly due to the low accessibility of microcrystalline cellulose fibers and the presence of lignin (mainly) and hemicellulose on the surface of cellulose, which prevents the enzymes to act efficiently. Thus, pretreatment of lignocellulosic residues before hydrolysis is a prerequisite. Autohydrolysis has shown to be one of the most promising. It has the advantage to enable a high recovery of hemicelluloses as soluble saccharides, while both cellulose and lignin can be recovered in the solid phase with minor losses. Furthermore, it has many technological and environmental benefits, mainly related to its uncatalyzed nature. Our work aims to improve the xylanolytic enzymes production by using corn cob autohydrolysis liquor to obtain a viable substrate for xylanase and beta-xylosidase production by filamentous fungi. 

 

414Mohamed Al-Rubeai

[email protected]

In vitro expansion of stem and progenitor cells

University College Dublin

Expansion of human cell population in vitro and systematic optimisation of culture conditions have become essential procedures in regenerative medicine. One of the challenges that cell process engineers will have to address is the development of feasible large scale cell expansion processes. Routine tissue culturing methodologies can hardly cope with the scale of cell production required for the clinical generation of cell therapy or tissue engineered products. In fact, the enhanced expansion potential of stem and progenitor cells in culture opens up the possibility for more intense expansion processes that may enable the generation of large cell banks for use in regenerative medicine. The aim of this talk is to provide a rational methodology for optimising culture conditions for the production of large quantities of cells following a sequential expansion process. In particular, the analysis of both seeding density and passage length is considered crucial and their correct selection should be taken as a requisite to establish culture conditions for monolayer systems. 

 

417Nei Pereira Jr 

[email protected]

2nd Generation Ethanol and the Context of Biorefinery: Trends & Challenges

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

To make possible the use of lignocellulosic materials as feedstocks for the production of ethanol and other chemicals following the biochemical platform, it is necessary to separate their main components. For this separation, a pretreatment stage is essential, which aims at basically disorganizing the lignocellulosic complex. The pretreatment can be realized through physical, physical-chemical, chemical or biological processes, and  can be either associated or followed by hydrolysis procedures of the polysaccharides (hemicellulose and cellulose) in their respective monomeric units (pentoses and hexoses). The trend and the option for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose come from the absence of severe conditions, typically of the chemical hydrolysis. This technological strategy differs from the conception of old processes in which the chemical hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (polyssaccharides with different susceptibilities to the hydrolytic attack) was taking in one step. These processes generated hydrolysates with high toxicity, which hindered the metabolism of the microorganisms agents of the fermentative processes. The transformation of lignocelulosic materials for the production of ethanol and other chemicals has been studied under different strategies of processing. Due to the presence of different sugars, very often the multiprocessing is made necessary, in other words, the use of enzymes simultaneously to the action of microorganisms. Or even the use of different microorganisms in successive stages, or of recombinant microorganisms as for utilizing the utmost of the available sugars (substrates). In this sense, four strategies are conceived, each one in a different development stage: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF); simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSCF); simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). All of them have been under deep investigation, being the basis of pilot, demonstrative and commercial plants. For countries like Brazil, with a strong agriculture tradition, the fermentation industry of lignocellulosic feedstocks is of great importance to the creation of technologies for the production of a range of useful compounds, within the context of Biorefinery. This concept offers innovative possibilities, since it can bring solutions to supplant technologies which pollute the biosphere or contribute to the depletion of finite sources. Nevertheless, the industry, the scientific community and the government need to work together in order to allow Brazil to reach its industrial/economical/environmental sustainability and to follow its natural vocation for the utilizations of BIOMASSES. In developed countries, integrated researches and the development of chemical and biological processes from lignocellulosic residues have advanced speedily and commercial plants for the utilization of such materials are turning into reality.

 

420Peter Richard 

 [email protected]

Pathways for D-galacturonic acid catabolism and their biotechnological relevance

Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)

D-galacturonic acid is the main constituent of pectin, a naturally abundant compound. Large quantities of pectin-rich biomass such as citrus peel and sugar beet pulp are produced worldwide. In Brazil, the world's major exporter of orange juice, 12 million metric tons of citrus peel is produced annually. Worldwide, about 20 million metric tons of sugar beet pulp is produced. Both dried sugar beet pulp and dried citrus peel are currently used as cattle feed, but several sugar factories and orange juice factories just dump it and let it rot because the energy costs of drying and pelletizing are too high. Pectin has the potential to be an important raw material for biotechnological conversions to fuels or chemicals. Microbes utilize different pathways for the D-galacturonic acid catabolism. There are at least two different bacterial pathways and one eukaryotic pathway, which were only recently identified. This talk will review different possibilities to apply these pathways for the production of useful products using metabolically engineered microbes. 

 

519

Rubens Maciel Filho 

[email protected]

Integrating 1G, 2G and 3G: Challenges and perspectives 

State University of Campinas 

Increasing oil prices and global concern about climate change motivate the investigation of more efficient means of bioethanol production. An integrated process is proposed in this project, so as to maximize the productivity of bioethanol from sugar-cane molasses and bagasse and straw, which give rise to, respectively, first and second generation bioethanol. The Greenhouse Gas carbon dioxide, produced in this two ethanol generations processes, is proposed to be used in the production of a third generaton of ethanol, which comes both from algal biomass and catalytic transformation or biological fermentation of synthesis gas. This challenging integrated process has the major appeal of not emitting carbon dioxide and makes the best of the carbon-containing material for producing ethanol, turning it, when technically and economically feasible, a milestone for improving Brazilian bioethanol competitiveness. 


423Silvio S. da Silva

 [email protected]

Sustainable production of D-xylitol by microbial fermentation: Opportunities, challenges and future directions

University of São Paulo 

Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol, has received a renewed interest due to its numerous advantages as a functional sweetener in the food, confectionaries and medical sectors. Particularly, new pharmaceutical applications of xylitol have shifted the momentum for the research aiming cost competitive xylitol production. In the present scenario, it is being produced by chemical synthesis from hemicellulose from plant biomass. However, chemical synthesis of xylitol is uneconomic and environmentally unsafe. Therefore, time is now to look out for the options for its sustainable production by biotechnological approaches. In the last three decades, there is a lot of research work has been carried out in the laboratories for the production of clean sugars from hemicellulose followed by microbial conversion into xylitol under various process configurations. This research has been aimed to develop efficient and reproducible hemicellulose conversion, detoxification of sugar syrups, microbial fermentation, strain improvement for high xylitol titers and product recovery. Despite this, xylitol production adopting biotechnological approaches is still a challenge for large scale production. Rigorous efforts from research community, biochemical engineers, entrepreneurs, economic analysts and policy makers is required to develop the successful platform for sustainable xylitol production in order to meet the increased demands of xylitol in various application based sectors. In this presentation, efforts have been summarized to put the concrete informationrelated to the main technological advancements made in xylitol production in conjunction with detail market search and new applications of this important polyalcohol. 

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